ENVIS Centre on Wetland Ecosystems including Inland Wetlands
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Research Articles on Wetlands
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SNo Title Published Year Name of the Author Source Abstract Keywords
1 Above - Ground Standing Biomass and Carbon Stock Dynamics under a Varied Degree of Anthropogenic Pressure in Tropical Rain Forests of Uttara Kannada District, Western Ghats, India 2011 D. M. Bhat(1*) and N. H. Ravindranath(2) Taiwania, 56(2): 85-96, 2011
Above-ground standing biomass and carbon-stock dynamics were monitored for 25 years (from 1984 to 2009) in six 1-ha permanent forest sites subjected to different levels of anthropogenic pressure in tropical rain forests of Uttara Kannada district,Western Ghats, south India. Over the years, total loss of trees ranged from 97 to 761 (23.95- 60 .7%) trees/ha, removal of trees by people ranged from 42 to 559 (5.5-55.17%) trees/ha and number of trees dead ranged from 55-370 (5.52-38.38%) trees/ha, leading to reduction in basal area in two sites (-1.81 m2/ha, and -1.73 m2/ha). In four sites, basal area increased from 0.98 to 22.19 m2/ha, because of compensatory growth of surviving trees and added above-ground standing biomass ranging from 6.40 to 144.67 t/ha. Tree recruitment ranged from 214 to 1,840 trees/ha and it was more than the number of trees lost in four sites, indicating faster recovery of tree density. In the 25th year, recruits formed 28.34 - 85.06% of the stand tree density and shared 1.20-18.47% of the stand basal area and accounted for 1.0-14.67% of the above-ground standing biomass and carbon stock, making all six sites as C-sinks. In general, the rate of carbon accumulation in forests of Uttara Kannada district was 1.13 t C /ha /yr , of which, 0.58-1.18 t C /ha/year was contributed by surviving trees and 0.55-0.33 t C/ha/year was added by recruits. With proper management strategies, the C-sequestration potential in the forests can be elevated and by reforesting degraded area, the carbon sink can be enhanced in the Western Ghats region. Role of recruits in forest dynamics must be considered while planning and management of forests to enhance carbon stocks.
Above-ground standing biomass, carbon stock dynamics, India, tropical rain forests, Uttara Kannada, Western

Hartala and Velhala lakes of Jalgaon district of Maharashtra (India). were selected for present investigation. The Hartala lake is located near village Hartala of Tal. Mutainager lies on small tributary of river Tapti. Three stations of Hartala lake viz. H-I ,H-II & H-III were selected for the collection of water and algal samples. The Velhala lake is situated near village Velhala of Bhusawal taluka at about 8 km south to Bhusawal city. Three stations of relhalu lake viz V-I,V-II & V-III were selected for collection . All algal taxa of both lakes were identified with the help of monographs & recent literature. By using Palmer's Index of pollution for rating water samples as high or low organically polluted at 3 stations of Hartala Lake & 3 stations of Velhala Lake were examined. Nygaard's trophic state indices of 3 stations of Hartala Lake & 3 stations of Velhala Lake were calculated. At all stations of Hartala & Velhala Lake 38 pollution toterant genera were recorded. It was observed that the number of pollution tolerant genera & species were more at the station of Hartala Lake than those of Velhala Lake. The compound trophic state indices of all stations of Hartala & Velhala lakes showed eutrophic nature of water.Thus pollution tolerant algal communities can be used as bioindicators of pollution & entrophication for assessment of water quality of Hartala & Velhala Lakes of Jalgaon district of Maharashtra.
Algal communities, Pollution, Eutrophication
3 An examination of amphibian sensitivity to environmental contaminants: are amphibians poor canaries? 2010 Jacob L. Kerby,1* Kathryn L.
Richards-Hrdlicka,2 Andrew
Storfer3 and David K. Skelly2,4
Ecology Letters, (2010) 13: 60-67
Nearly two decades ago, the global biodiversity crisis was catapulted to the front pages of newspapers with the recognition of worldwide amphibian declines. Amphibians earned their appellation, canaries in a coal mine, because of apparent high sensitivity to humanmediated environmental change. The most frequently cited causes for high susceptibility include permeable skin, a dual aquatic-terrestrial life cycle and a relatively rudimentary immune system. While some researchers have questioned the basis for the canary assertion, there has been no systematic evaluation of amphibian sensitivity to environmental challenges relative to other taxa. Here, we apply a database representing thousands of toxicity tests to compare the responses of amphibians relative to that of other taxonomic groups. The use of standardized methods combined with large numbers of identical challenges enables a particularly powerful test of relative effect size. Overall, we found that amphibians only exhibit moderate relative responses to water-borne toxins. Our findings imply that, as far as chemical contaminants are concerned, amphibians are not particularly sensitive and might more aptly be described as miners in a coal mine. To the extent that amphibian declines have been mediated by chemical contaminants, our findings suggest that population losses and extinctions may have already occurred in a variety of taxa much more sensitive than amphibians.
Amphibians, canary in a coal mine, contaminants, declines, indicator species, sensitive
4 Biologically induced accumulations of CaCO3 in orthox soils of Biga, Ivory Coast 2004 Guillaume Cailleaua, Olivier Braissanta, Christophe Dupraza,Michel Aragnob, Eric P. Verrecchiaa,* www.elsevier.com
Biologically induced accumulations of calcium carbonate have been found inside orthox soils,under and around the native iroko tree Milicia excelsa(Moraceae) in Biga (Ivory Coast). The nature of these accumulations and their origin were studied in two soil profiles, directly under the tree and at a distance of 30 cm from the trunk. Microscale forms of CaCO3 include: (1) wood pseudomorphic structures such as parenchyma cells, cellulose fibers, and calcitic vessel infillings; (2) three types of rhombohedra; and (3) needle fiber calcite (NFC). In addition, large scale blocks exhibit three types of textures: (1) micritic calcite, which seems to be the original material; (2) light-colored sparite in moldic voids; and (3) asymmetrical radiaxial laminated fibrous cement. Some micritic aggregates and hemi-spherulites (vaterite) were found in the sap on the trunk as well as in soils on silica grains and the wood itself. The mineralogy of all these carbonate forms is mainly a stoichiometric calcite or a moderately enriched Mg calcite. However, some samples contain monohydrocalcite, as well as two polymorphs of calcium oxalate (weddellite and whewellite). Calcite precipitation is facilitated by the oxidation of oxalate by soil bacteria that contributes to the increase in pH in Biga soils. This is in contrast to conventional orthox soils. Therefore, three conditions are necessary for biologically induced precipitation of calcium carbonate in orthox soils associated with iroko trees: the presence of a large amount of oxalate (originating from the tree and fungi), the existence of an oxalotrophic flora for oxalate oxidation into carbonate, and a dry season.
Carbonate accumulations; Iroko tree; Orthox soils; Oxalate; Biomineral
5 CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN MANGROVES ECOSYSTEMS 2012 Patil V.*, Singh A., Naik N., Seema U. and Sawant B. Journal of Environmental Research And Development The main objective of the paper is to review the potential of mangroves to sequester carbon. Mangroves, Carbon sequestration, Carbon sequestration potential, Mangroves protection, Restoration, Global warming
6 Ecological Characteristics of Benthic Diatom Communities in Assessment of Lake Trophic Status 2010 Alakananda, B1,2. Supriya Guruprasad1. Mahesh M.K2 and Ramachandra T.V1
The ecology of benthic diatoms was investigated in 15 lakes which are in the fringe of urbanization impacts. The aim of this study was to examine the community composition and diversity of benthic diatoms in different microhabitats viz. epilithic, episammic and epiphytic. This study also contributed to the understanding of whether environmental factors control the species composition? Water and benthic diatom samples were collected from different habitats and sampling sites during February - May 2009. Results showed that physical and chemical variables of water varied spatially. The water quality of lakes which were contaminated with sewage and/or industrial discharge was influenced by pH,electric conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, and biological oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations. This was also evident by principal component analysis (PCA). The cluster analysis groups the lake sampling sites which are categorized into different water quality classes. Total diatom data consisted of 122 taxa and varied with change in habitat. The dominance of Gomphonema parvulum,Nitzshia umbonata, N. linearis, N. palea conveyed the eutrophic to hypertrophic lake trophic condition.The genus Achnanthidium had a wide range for water quality parameters and was found abundance across all the sites. The high nutrient filled inflow was confirmed by the ecological preferences and tolerance of benthic diatoms to sustain in such pollution. The diatom indices (TDI, GDI, and SPI) are used to classify mesotrophic from eutrophic lakes and thus monitoring strategies including benthic diatoms can also aid in conservation of urban diversity.

7 Environmental Impacts of Pollution in the Aquatic Ecosystem of Coastal Regions, Mumbai 2008 Sumitha G. and Fulekar M. H.* Research Journal Of BioTechnology The study has been carried out in a coastal ecosystem which includes a variety of wetland habitats, mangroves, coastal waters, and lagoons in and around Mumbai region. Fenneropeneaus indicus, marine water quality, Mumbai creeks, mangroves, cadmium, aquatic ecosystem,metal toxicity, marine pollution.
In present paper the reasons for pollution and degradation of lake, its causes such as human interventions, exploitation of water resources, threat to wetland biodiversity, need of preservation of wetland habitat with diversity, the parameters which are indicators of eutrophication, reasons for the eutrophication, remedy for the conservation of the lake, required management steps both at the wetland site and at watershed area, comprehensive conservative measures will be discussed.

9 First Report on Plant Galls (Zoocecidia) from Mangrove swamps of Vikhroli, Maharashtra
R.M.Sharma1, P.V.Joshi2 and Mahesh Shindikar3 Zoos' Print Journal 18(10): 1217 - 1219 Mangrove swamps along Thane Creek (Mumbai), Maharashtra Coast were surveyed to study plant galls. Avicennia marina, Sonneratia apetala and Salvadora persica (a mangrove associate) were found subjected to gall information Mangroves, plant galls, Thane Creek, Vikhroli
10 Geochemical Assessment of Metal Concentrations in Mangrove Sediments along Mumbai Coast, India 2012 Lina Fernandes, G. N. Nayak and D. Ilangovan International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering 6 2012 Two short sediment cores collected from mangrove areas of Manori and Thane creeks along Mumbai coast were analysed for sediment composition and metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni, Zn, Cr and V). Creek, Igeo, Mumbai, trace metals
11 Relationship Among the Abundance of Waterbird Species Diversity, Macrophytes, Macroinvertebrates and Physico-chemical Characteristics in Santragachi Jheel, Howrah, W.B., India 2010 Ashis Patra, Kalyan Brata Santra* and Chanchal Kumar Manna** ACTA ZOOLOGICA BULGARICA
The present study has been designed with the aim of investigating the avifaunal diversity in Santragachi Jheel. Avifaunal population expresses distinct seasonal variation in this Jheel. Total 33 species belonging to 8 families and 23 genera were recorded which were categorized as resident, resident migratory and migratory birds. The population density of total avifauna was found to be maximum in winter. Family Anhingidae, Phalacrocoracidae and Ardeidae showed premonsoon maxima at all sites (S1, S2 and S3) of Jheel. The abundance of family Rallidae and Anatidae was higher in winter whereas Jacanidae density expressed highest density in monsoon period. Higher values of Shannon-Wiener index of diversity and Margalef's species richness of avifauna were recorded in Santragachi Jheel. Highest value of avifaunal index of similarity was observed between S1 and S3 site of Santragachi Jheel. Bird's abundance is remarkably related with various physico-chemical parameters of water, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and other physical factors of Jheel. Total avifaunal abundance was found to be positively infl uenced by dissolved oxygen (DO) and NO3 in Jheel. Family Ardeidae has positive correlation with temperature of water (WT).Anatidae has expressed positive relationship with NO3. Ardeidae has strong positive correlation with free floating type of macrophytes. Jacanidae family was positively infl uenced by total macrophytes (T-MACP) and free fl oating (FF) type of macrophytes. Total avifaunal population has been positively correlated with total macroinvertebrate abundance. Family Rallidae and Anatidae project positive correlation with crustacean population in the Jheel. Anatidae has positive correlation with Diptera and Gastropoda family. The population of the birds fl uctuated seasonally between stations to station. A remarkable interrelationship was established between avifaunal density and trophic characteristics, especially phosphate content in Santragachi Jheel.
Avifauna, Physico-chemical, Macrophytes, Macroinvertebrates, Shannon-wiener index
12 Underestimating the damage: interpreting cetacean carcass
recoveries in the context of the Deepwater Horizon/BP incident
2011 Rob Williams1, Shane Gero2, Lars Bejder3, John Calambokidis4, Scott D. Kraus5, David Lusseau6,
Andrew J. Read7, & Jooke Robbins8
Conservation Letters 4 (2011) 228-233
Evaluating impacts of human activities on marine ecosystems is difficult when effects occur out of plain sight. Oil spill severity is often measured by the number of marine birds and mammals killed, but only a small fraction of carcasses are recovered. The Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest in the U.S. history, but some reports implied modest environmental impacts, in part because of a relatively low number (101) of observed marine mammal mortalities. We estimate historical carcass-detection rates for 14 cetacean species in the northern Gulf of Mexico that have estimates of abundance, survival rates, and stranding records. This preliminary analysis suggests that carcasses are recovered, on an average, from only 2% (range: 0-6.2%)of cetacean deaths. Thus, the true death toll could be 50 times the number of carcasses recovered, given no additional information. We discuss caveats to this estimate, but present it as a counterpoint to illustrate the magnitude of misrepresentation implicit in presenting observed carcass counts without similar qualification. We urge methodological development to develop appropriate multipliers. Analytical methods are required to account explicitly for low probability of carcass recovery from cryptic mortality events (e.g., oil spills, ship strikes, bycatch in unmonitored fisheries and acoustic trauma).
Anthropogenic impacts; dolphin; Deepwater
Horizon; Gulf of Mexico; mortality; oil;
13 Water quality and pollution status of Chambal river in
National Chambal sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh
2008 D.N. Saksena*, R.K. Garg and R.J. Rao Journal of Environmental Biology
The physico-chemical characteristics of Chambal river water in National Chambal sanctuary (Madhya Pradesh) have been studied. The stretch of Chambal river contained in the National Chambal sanctuary (located at 250 23'-260 52'N, 760 28'-790 15'E) is extending up to 600 km downstream from Kota (Rajasthan) to the confluence of the Chambal with Yamuna river (Etawah). The river flow in Madhya Pradesh spans up to approximately 400 km. Three sampling stations viz., Station A-near Palighat, district Sheopurkalan, Station B-near Rajghat, district Morena and Station C-near Baraighat, district Bhind were established for the collection of water samples during April, 2003 to March, 2004. The water quality parameters namely transparency (12.12 - 110 cm),colour (transparent-very turbid), turbidity (1-178 TNU), electrical conductivity (145.60-884 :S cm-1), total dissolved solids (260-500 mgl-1), pH (7.60-9.33),dissolved oxygen (4.86-14.59 mgl-1), free carbon dioxide (0-16.5 mgl-1), total alkalinity (70-290 mgl-1), total hardness (42-140 mgl-1), chloride (15.62-80.94 mgl-1),nitrate (0.008-0.025 mgl-1), nitrite (0.002-0.022 mgl-1), sulphate (3.50-45 mgl-1), phosphate (0.004-0.050 mgl-1), silicate (2.80-13.80 mgl-1), biochemical oxygen demand (0.60-5.67 mgl-1), chemical oxygen demand (2.40-26.80 mgl-1), ammonia (nil-0.56 mgl-1), sodium (14.30-54.40 mgl-1) and potassium (2.10 mgl-1-6.30 mgl-1) reflects on the pristine nature of the river in National Chambal sanctuary. On the basis of various parameters studied, Chambal river in this stretch can be placed under the category of oligosaprobic. The water quality analysis, indicated that the river water in the sanctuary area is pollution free and can serve as a good habitat for many aquatic animals including endangered species.
Chambal river, Water quality, Pollution status, Sanctuary area
14 Water tanks as ecosystems. Local ecosystemic perception for integral management of water tanks in Tamil Nadu, South India 2007 Pere Ariza1, Elena Galán, Tarik Serrano, Victoria Reyes-García - Laboratori
d'Etnoecologia2 - UAB
Water tanks offer from many centuries ago solutions in South India for several problems related with water scarcity. They are a traditional water harvesting system wide spread in this territory, allowing a potential decentralized and participatory management of the local population on their own resources. Although water tanks' main function is irrigation, they have many other uses, functions and natural resources associated, involving stakeholders in the villages apart from those farmers making use of the irrigation. Water tanks provide a variety of landscapes and biodiversity that creates a valuable heterogeneous territory. The complexity of such an ecosystem should be managed with an integral perspective, considering all the elements involved and their relations, and understanding that water tanks are not just water deposits. This multidisciplinary study tries to demonstrate the idea of water tanks as ecosystems, describing and analyzing deeply and in an unprecedentedly way the functions, uses, natural resources and stakeholders. The research also focuses in the assessment of the ecosystemic perception of the local population of some villages in Tamil Nadu, employing diverse anthropological methodology.
water tank, ecosystem, integral management, social perception, South
India, participation
15 Wetland inventory, assessment and monitoring: Practical techniques and identification of major issues 1998 CM Finlayson1 & NC Davidson2
A review of recommendations from previous international conferences and workshops on wetland inventory, assessment and monitoring is provided. This lists the main recommendations from each meeting and summarises them as:
Collection of long-term data on wetlands;
Standardisation of techniques, guidelines and manuals;
Provision of training;
Reviewing gaps and co-ordination of data collection;
Developing and making greater use of networks; and
Developing means to audit existing effort.
wetland inventory, wetland assessment, wetland monitoring, Ramsar Convention
Dipankar C.Patnaik1, Priya Srihari2
The study has used Remote Sensing and Geographic information systems to analyse the extent of damage caused to the ecologically sensitive and essential wetlands. Specie Identification, Water quality analysis and Socio-economic surveys were carried out. It also suggests a Management Plan and hopes that this work would go a long way in the reclamation of this bountiful resource base. The authors of paper hope that this would be a valid step in the path to attain a much-needed salve for the wetlands that can at best remain mute witness to their own doom.
Bio-diversity, Flora and Fauna, Geographic Information Systems, Remote
Sensing, Water Quality, Wetlands
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